Vietnam has a remarkable and diverse orchid flora that is still being explored and described. Orchids are the largest family in the flora and may exceed 1000 species with more being described every year as remoter areas are explored. They are found in every habitat from the coastal mangrove forests to the highest mountain peaks. The slipper orchids, a small but showy part of the flora, epitomise the exuberance of Vietnams orchids and, at the same time, emphasise their vulnerability. Although almost half have been discovered within the past ten years, many of them are already threatened with extinction by the combined problems of forest destruction and commercial collecting. This book details the geology, climate and vegetation of Vietnam in all its remarkable diversity. The main text provides comprehensive accounts of the history, nomenclature and relationships of each of the 22 slipper orchid species and natural hybrids found within the country. It also provides the first detailed accounts of their habitats, biology and ecology. On a more urgent note it also highlights the imminent threat of extinction faced by many of them. Further urgent measures are necessary both within Vietnam and abroad to protect what remains.