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Публикации с 31 по 45 из 60 всего
Molecular Phylogenetic Analysis of the Genus Abies (Pinaceae) Based on the Nucleotide Sequence of Chloroplast DNA
Просмотров: 138 Rating Star
A phylogenetic study of firs (Abies Mill.) was conducted using nucleotide sequences of several chloroplast DNA regions with a total length of 5580 bp. The analysis included 37 taxa, which represented the main evolutionary lineages of the genus, and Keteleeria davidiana. According to phylogenetic re...construction, the Abies species were subdivided into six main groups, generally corresponding to their geographic distribu tion. The phylogenetic tree had three basal clades. All of these clades contained American species, and only one of them contained Eurasian species. The divergence time calibrations, based on paleobotanical data and the chloroplast DNA mutation rate estimates in Pinaceae, produced similar results. The age of diversification among the basal clades of the presentday Abies was estimated as the end of the Oligocene–beginning of Miocene. The age of the separation of Mediterranean firs from the Asian–North American branch corre sponds to the Miocene. The age of diversification within the young groups of Mediterranean, Asian, and “boreal” American firs (A. lasiocarpa, A. balsamea, A. fraseri) was estimated as the Pliocene—Pleistocene. Based on the phylogenetic reconstruction obtained, the most plausible biogeographic scenarios were sug gested. It is noted that the existing systematic classification of the genus Abies strongly contradicts with phy logenetic reconstruction and requires revision.
Подробнее Год издания: 2014
Genetic Differentiation of Spruce Populations in Northwest Russia According to the Results of Microsatellite Loci Analysis
Просмотров: 187 Rating Star
Analysis of the genetic diversity of the spruce populations in the northwest of the European part of Russia using microsatellite markers revealed two relatively isolated genetic clusters. One of them is com posed of trees that were identified as P. abies according to morphological traits. Another ...cluster unites spruces that were determined as P. obovata and P. fennica. The results of SSR analysis do not support the idea of the taxonomic independence of the hybridogeneous P. fennica species. The frequency of genotypes attributed to P. abies (according to the results of microsatellite markers) decreases significantly from south to north.
Подробнее Год издания: 2013
Pinus fenzeliana Hand.-Mazz. (Pinaceae) still misinterpreted?
Просмотров: 0 Rating Star
Despite the clarification of long-lasting problems with the interpretation of the name Pinus fenzeliana Hand.-Mazz. by Businsky 2004 and the selection of a neotype, at least two authors have recently connected this name with fundamentally different taxa following the old concept based on several co...nfusions caused by insufficiency and later through the absence of original material. Relevant misinterpretations are reviewed and a photo of the neotype specimen of P fenzeliana is given along with a photo of the most commonly confused taxon, P. wangii H. H. Hu & W. C. Cheng subsp. kwangtungensis (Chun ex Tsiang) Businsky. Diagnostic characters of P. fenzeliana (leaves ± drooping, mostly 12-19 cm long and less than 1 mm wide, cones erecto-patent, seeds mostly 10-15 mm long, with a rudimentary, lacerate, ineffective wing) and five other taxa (all of P. sect. Quinquefoliae) often confused with it are summarized.
Подробнее Год издания: 2010
Typification of specific and infraspecific names in Abies, Larix, Picea, and Pinus (Pinaceae)
Просмотров: 190 Rating Star
In connection with systematic studies of the genera Abies, Larix, Picea, and Pinus (Pinaceae) lectotypes are designated for Abies pinsapo var. baborensis, Larix × czekanowskii (= L. gmelinii × L. sibirica), Larix dahurica, L. griffithii, Picea abies var. arctica, P. maximowiczii, P. schrenkiana, Pi...nus brunoniana (≡ Tsuga brunoniana), P. canariensis, P. coronans, P. × neilreichiana (= P. nigra × P. sylvestris), P. smithiana (≡ Picea smithiana), and P. sylvestris vars. baliosperma, leucosperma, melanocarpa, mongolica, mongolica, and phaeosperma. Lectotypes and epitypes are designated for Pinus pumilio var. applanata and P. uncinata var. rotundata f. mughoides, as well as an epitype for P. mugo. Furthermore, various original material has been located for Abies sibirica, Pinus altamiranoi, P. ayachahuite, P. khasya, P. × litvinovii (P. sylvestris × tabulaeformis), P. pityusa, and P. pringlei, as well as Tsuga longibracteata (≡ Nothotsuga longibracteata).
Подробнее Год издания: 2006
ГЕНЕТИЧЕСКАЯ ДИФФЕРЕНЦИАЦИЯ ПОПУЛЯЦИЙ ЕЛИ НА СЕВЕРО-ЗАПАДЕ РОССИИ ПО РЕЗУЛЬТАТАМ МАРКИРОВАНИЯ МИКРОСАТЕЛЛИТНЫХ ЛОКУСОВ
Просмотров: 129 Rating Star
Анализ генетического разнообразия популяций ели на Северо-Западе Европейской части России с использованием микросателлитных маркеров выявил два относительно обособленных генетических кластера. Один из них составляют деревья, идентифицированные по морфологическим признакам как P.abies. Другой класте...р объединяет ели, определенные как P.obovata и P.fennica. Результаты SSR-анализа не поддерживают идею о таксономической самостоятельности гибридогенного вида P.fennica. Частота встречаемости генотипов, отнесенных по результатам микросателлитного маркирования к P.abies, достоверно убывает с юга на север.
Подробнее Год издания: 2015
К систематике и географическому распространению Ели финской (Picea fennica (Regel) Kom., Pinaceae)
Просмотров: 121 Rating Star
В статье приведены история изучения, отличительные морфологические признаки вегетативных и репродуктивных органов и географическое распространение Picea fennica (Regel) Kom. и близких к ней видов P. abies (L.) H. Karst. и P. obovata Ledeb. Высказано мнение о гибридогенной природе P. fennica — молод...ого, не до конца сложившегося вида. Показано, что на протяжении своего обширного ареала ель финская встречается в двух основных формах: близкой к P. abies и близкой к P. obovata. Отмечена также промежуточная форма P. fennica, которая по морфологии шишек проявляет промежуточные признаки, но по вегетативным признакам более близка к P. obovata. Выявлены интересные закономерности в географическом распространении этой промежуточной формы.
Подробнее Год издания: 2014
Taxonomic Revision and Conspectus of Pinus in Vietnam
Просмотров: 0 Rating Star
Vietnam shows one of the greatest conifer diversity in Eurasia, and Pinus is the genus with the highest species richness (8 species). There is a great taxonomic confusion or there are only provisional identifications of Pinus species in the relevant literature. In this study Vietnamese populations ...of pines with controversial identities have been taxonomically reassessed. All taxa are summarised and geographical distribution on the basis of the author’s field knowledge of Asian pine species is given.
Подробнее Год издания: 2013
Southern montane populations did not contribute to the recolonization of West Siberian Plain by Siberian larch (Larix sibirica): a range-wide analysis of cytoplasmic markers
Просмотров: 117 Rating Star
While many species were confined to southern latitudes during the last glaciations, there has lately been mounting evidence that some of the most cold-tolerant species were actually able to survive close to the ice sheets. The contribution of these higher latitude outposts to the main recolonizatio...n thrust remains, however, untested. In the present study, we use the first range-wide survey of genetic diversity at cytoplasmic markers in Siberian larch (Larix sibirica; four mitochondrial (mt) DNA loci and five chloroplast (cp) DNA SSR loci) to (i) assess the relative contributions of southern and central areas to the current L. sibirica distribution range; and (ii) date the last major population expansion in both L. sibirica and adjacent Larix species. The geographic distribution of cpDNA variation was uninformative, but that of mitotypes clearly indicates that the southernmost populations, located in Mongolia and the Tien-Shan and Sayan Mountain ranges, had a very limited contribution to the current populations of the central and northern parts of the range. It also suggests that the contribution of the high latitude cryptic refugia was geographically limited and that most of the current West Siberian Plain larch populations likely originated in the foothills of the Sayan Mountains. Interestingly, the main population expansion detected through Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) in all four larch species investigated here pre-dates the LGM, with a mode in a range of 220 000–1 340 000 years BP. Hence, L. sibirica, like other major conifer species of the boreal forest, was strongly affected by climatic events pre-dating the Last Glacial Maximum.
Подробнее Год издания: 2013
A NEW SPECIES OF SOFT PINE FROM THE VIETNAMESE BORDER OF LAOS
Просмотров: 124 Rating Star
A new species of Pinus subgen. Strobus, discovered for the fi rst time in 2006 on the Vietnamese border of Laos at 17°40´N, is described as Pinus anemophila on the basis of the author’s new collection. According to the species’ morphology, es pecially the cones and large seeds with a relatively sho...rt wing, it belongs to P. sect. Quinquefoliae subsect. Strobus subser. Wangianae. It is a local relict limited to the eastern margin of Phou Ak sandstone plateau in Khammouan Province (central Laos) between 800 and 1100 m.
Подробнее Год издания: 2010
Morphological, anatomical and genetic differentiation of Cornus mas, Cornus officinalis and their interspecific hybrid
Просмотров: 128 Rating Star
Cornus mas L., C. officinalis Sieb. et Zucc. and their putative interspecific hybrid specimens were examined in order to describe their morphological, anatomical and genetic differentiation. Petiole length, number of leaf veins, pedicel and bract length, stone size, thickness of pericarp layers, th...e size and number of locules and the number of cavities were measured. Pedicels and bracts were shown to be significantly longer for C. mas (7.22 and 6.95 mm) and for the putative hybrid (9.11 and 6.61 mm) than for C. officinalis (6.86 and 5.81 mm, respectively). Average values of stone width and thickness, exocarp and mesocarp thickness, the number of cavities in the endocarp obtained for the putative hybrid differed significantly in comparison to C. mas and were similar to C. officinalis. Genotypes of the examined species were evaluated for genetic relationships using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers. Initial screening of the bulks of C. mas and C. officinalis compared with their putative hybrid using 72 decamer random primers resulted in the identification of 24 primers differentiating both species and their putative hybrid and showing reliable polymorphisms. Among a total of 485 amplified fragments, 89.7% were polymorphic, 18.8% were specific to C. mas individuals, and 18.6% were specific to the individuals of C. officinalis. In obtained profiles of the examined hybrid individual specific products absent in the genotypes of both parents were observed. The phylogenetic tree revealed two separate clusters including C. mas and C. officinalis accessions, respectively. The biggest genetic distance was observed for hybrid specimens, although the hybrid belonged to the C. mas cluster.
Подробнее Год издания: 2012
Problems in the Field of Systematics and Investigation of Conifers in Russia
Просмотров: 98 Rating Star
The largest and most important family in Russian conifers is Pinaceae (27-29 species). The most important problems in the field of systemitics concern some critical taxa. In the result of author’s research, the new signs of vegetative and reproductive organs have been checked out and elaborated. It... leads to the clarifying of new taxonomic status and geographical distribution of certain critical taxa. A set of species are threatened and need special measures for their conservation. There are 13 species and one variety which are included into the Red Data Book of Russian Federation.
Подробнее Год издания: 2013
Идентификация Picea abies, P. fennica, P. obovata (Pinaceae) и их форм с помощью методов молекулярного маркирования
Просмотров: 180 Rating Star
В 2009 г. в Тосненском р-не Ленинградской обл. проведены исследования географических культур Picea abies, P. obovata и P. fennica, выращенных из семян, собранных в разных регионах европейской части России и Зап. Сибири. Для ели финской выявлены формы с признаками ели европейской {P. fennica, близка...я P. abies) и с признаками ели сибирской {P. fennica, близкая P. obovata). На материале 67 генотипов елей географических культур, относящихся к 26 климатипам, проанализированы возможности молекулярных маркеров RAPD для целей диагностики видов P. abies, Р. obovata и P. fennica. Выявлен потенциально диагностический RAPD-маркер OPD1430o, ранее уже упоминавшийся в литературе, как эффективный для диагностики близкородственных видов североамериканских елей. Маркер OPDM300 может быть использован для диагностики P. abies, P. obovata и близких к ним форм P. fennica в спорных случаях.
Подробнее Год издания: 2012
КОМПЬЮТЕРНАЯ СИСТЕМА TAXON.PRO ДЛЯ ИДЕНТИФИКАЦИИ И ИССЛЕДОВАНИЯ БИОЛОГИЧЕСКИХ ТАКСОНОВ В СЕТИ ИНТЕРНЕТ
Просмотров: 153 Rating Star
Рассмотрены особенности компьютерной системы для описания, исследования и определения различных биологических таксонов по морфологическим признакам, а также освещены проблемы перевода информации в электронный формат. Описаны примеры создаваемых баз данных – “Аборигенные и интродуцированные таксоны ...хвойных растений Северо-Запада европейской части России” и “Дендрофильные насекомые средней полосы России”, а также некоторые другие отечественные и зарубежные электронные базы данных.
Подробнее Год издания: 2016
Структурно-морфологические особенности однолетних астрагалов (Astragalus L., Fabaceae) в свете мейеновской мерономии
Просмотров: 160 Rating Star
Типологическая концепция С.В. Мейена (мероно-таксономический анализ) перспективна для эволюционной таксономии: она типологически формализует закономерности трансформации признака или органа, подчиняющихся общим физическим законам морфогенеза, и определяет спектр существующего в природе разнообразия... гомологичных признаков. Задача систематика – понять, каким образом реализуется пространство логически вероятных состояний в конкретных биоморфах и таксонах разного уровня. Заметим, что представители семейства бобовых (Fabaceae), избранные модельными объектами исследования отечественными морфологами – Л.Е. Гатцук [1994], изучавшей типологию конструктивных особенностей сходства соцветий астрагалов, разработанную Т.В. Кузнецовой [1987], и М.В. Марковым [2012], занимавшимся биологией малолетних растений, оказались результативными для ряда оригинальных гипотез. Однолетние виды, относящиеся к родам Trigonella L., Medicago L., Hippocrepis L., чрезвычайно интересны для целей сравнительной морфологии: ряд их фенетических признаков, имеющих альтернативные, дискретные проявления, усиливающие сущностные признаки родовой специализации, нередко приобретают аберрантные, почти гротескные формы.
Подробнее Год издания: 2016
Problems in the Field of Systematics and Investigation of Conifers in Russia
Просмотров: 123 Rating Star
The largest and most important family in Russian conifers is Pinaceae (27-29 species). The most important problems in the field of systemitics concern some critical taxa. In the result of author’s research, the new signs of vegetative and reproductive organs have been checked out and elaborated. It... leads to the clarifying of new taxonomic status and geographical distribution of certain critical taxa. A set of species are threatened and need special measures for their conservation. There are 13 species and one variety which are included into the Red Data Book of Russian Federation.
Подробнее Год издания: 2013